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Optical Surfaces

This chapter refers to the systems for measuring and testing the following optical surfaces: flat, spherical, aspherical, diffractive and cylindrical.

There are three basic systems for testing optical surfaces:

1) Test Plates with monochromatic light for flat, spherical and cylindrical surfaces

2) Interferometers for all kind of surfaces, and

3) Profilometer, basically for aspheric and diffractive surfaces.

 

But first of all something about Interference and Newton Rings (fringes):

 

Interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude. Constructive and destructive interference result from the interaction of waves that are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency. Interference effects can be observed with all types of waves, for example, light, radio, acoustic, surface water waves, gravity waves, or matter waves. The resulting images or graphs are called interferograms.

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Interference of two waves. When in phase, the two lower waves create constructive interference (left), resulting in a wave of greater amplitude. When 180° out of phase, they create destructive interference (right). Taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_interference

 

Newton Rings (fringes)

Newton's rings is a phenomenon in which an interference pattern is created by the reflection of light between two surfaces: a spherical surface and an adjacent touching flat surface. It is named after Isaac Newton, who investigated the effect in his 1704 treatise Opticks. When viewed with monochromatic light, Newton's rings appear as a series of concentric, alternating bright and dark rings centered at the point of contact between the two surfaces. When viewed with white light, it forms a concentric ring pattern of rainbow colors, because the different wavelengths of light interfere at different thicknesses of the air layer between the surfaces. Taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27s_rings#:~:text=Closeup%20of%20a%20section%20of,showing%20how%20interference%20fringes%20form.&text=This%20results%20in%20a%20pattern,slightly%20convex%2C%20creating%20the%20rings.

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Interference patterns (Newton rings, fringes) made by Test Plate with monochromatic green Mercury light source on left (1) and Interference patterns (Newton rings, fringes) made by ZYGO Interferometer with HeNe laser light source on right (2). The picture taken from page 24 of Optics Inspection and Tests – A guide for Optics Inspectors and Designers by Michael Hausner, published: 2017 by SPIE, Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.2237066 

For the convenience matters the subjects are divided as follows:

 

  • Test Plates and monochromatic light for flat and spherical surfaces

  • Cylindrical Surfaces

  • Interferometric Methods for Testing Optical Surfaces

  • Aspheric and Diffractive surfaces

 

There are many articles/reports and books dealing with testing optical surfaces. They can be found on Internet. Some of them suitable for the purpose of this Web. And many others are basically scientific, meaning that they are more of a research and less for the inspection/test user. I tried to collect those that from my point of view can help the intended reader to understand the basics and more about the optical surfaces. Additional information can be reached from the tools/equipment manufacturers like Zygo, Taylor-Hobson, Mahr and others.

Test Plates and monochromatic light for flat and spherical surfaces

 

Optical Flat from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_flat   

 

Optical Flats by Edmund Optics.

Website: https://www.edmundoptics.com/knowledge-center/application-notes/optics/optical-flats/#:~:text=An%20optical%20flat%20is%20a,unknown%20surface%20may%20be%20compared.&text=The%20flatness%20of%20an%20optical,632.8%2F20%20or%2031.64nm.

Optical Flat Manual by Edmund Optics

Website: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/4392421/optical-flat-manual-edmund-optics      

 

Testing of Large Optical Surfaces with Small Test Plates by James B. Saunders, Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, Vol. 53, No. 1, July 1954. Research Paper 2514. 

Website: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/jres/53/jresv53n1p29_A1b.pdf 

Test Plates and their Use in Optical Testing (November 5, 2009) by Melanie Saayman.

Copyright: Scribd Inc.   

Website: https://www.scribd.com/document/108948816/Newton-Fringe-Testing

Optical Flat Manual (Optical Techniques for Measuring Flatness) by Edmund Optics. Copyrights of Edmund Optics.
Download Link: Click Here
    

 

Optics Inspection and Tests – A guide for Optics Inspectors and Designers by Michael Hausner, Inspection and Testing of Optical Surface Shape and Figure, pages 285-308, copyright © 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), PDF ISBN: 9781510601802, Print ISBN: 9781510601796.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.2237066 

Interference: Newton's rings by The Australian Office for Learning and Teaching.
Copyright © School of Physics – UNSW.

Websitehttps://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/light/Newton's-rings.html 

Interference patterns of optical surfaces - Test Plate and Monochromatic Source Light by Michael Hausner

Download Link: Click Here

Testing optical surfaces with reference test glasses - live

 

Russian Optical Flat Testing (Oct 30, 2017) by Tom Lipton, Octoolco.

Website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8I5P-r4ogm4      

 

Very cheap unique wavelength light for using with Optical Flats... Using a 532nm. 50mw LED laser (Jan 26, 2018) by Pierre's Garage

Website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSYl7q6yKPU 

Cylindrical Surfaces

Testing Cylindrical Lenses (1 December 1987), by Joseph M. Geary, Optical Engineering, 26(12), 261219 (1987), Published by SPIE.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7977158  

 

Considerations When Using Cylinder Lenses by Edmund Optics, This is Sections 4.1 and 4.2 of the Laser Optics Resource Guide.

Website: https://www.edmundoptics.com/knowledge-center/application-notes/lasers/considerations-when-using-cylinder-lenses/ 

 

What are Cylinder Lenses? by Edmund Optics. 

Website: https://www.edmundoptics.com/knowledge-center/application-notes/optics/what-are-cylinder-lenses/ 

 

A New Test for Cylindrical Optics (25 November 1986) by J. Geary and L. Parker, Proc. SPIE Volume 0661, Optical Testing and Metrology; (1986), Event: 1986 Quebec Symposium, 1986, Quebec City, Canada.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.938638  

 

Data Analysis In Fiber Optic Testing Of Cylindrical Optics (1 March 1989) by Joseph M. Geary, Optical Engineering, 28(3), 283212 (1989). SPIE digital library.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7976936  

 

Interferometrical measurement of cylindrical lenses with the help of computer-generated holograms (9 November 2001) by Norbert LindleinJuergen LamprechtKlaus Mantel and Johannes Schwider, Proc. SPIE Volume 4440, Lithographic and Micromachining Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication; (2001). Event: International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, 2001, San Diego, CA, United States

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.448032  

 

Testing Of Cylindrical Optical Surfaces (20 October 1986) by Bob Kruizinga, Proc. SPIE 0656, Contemporary Optical Instrument Design, Fabrication and Testing, doi: 10.1117/12.938475

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 0656, Contemporary Optical Instrument Design, Fabrication, and Testing, Editors: Leo H. J. F. Beckmann, J. David Briers and Paul R. Yoder Jr. 

Website: https://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Paper/10.1117/12.938475?SSO=1 

 

Overview of cylindrical optics testing using a fiber optic reference (8 September 1995) by Joseph M. Geary. Proceedings Volume 2536, Optical Manufacturing and Testing,  

Event: SPIE's 1995 International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering, and Instrumentation, 1995, San Diego, CA, United States. Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.218461  

 

Beam Shaping with Cylindrical Lenses by Newport Corporation (part of MKS Instruments, Inc.) 

Website: https://www.newport.com/n/beam-shaping-with-cylindrical-lenses

 

Cylindrical lenses offer many focusing options (12 Dec 2008) by CVI Melles Griot. This article originally appeared in the December 2008 issue of Optics & Laser Europe magazine.

Website: https://optics.org/article/37057    

Optical Figure Characterization for Cylindrical Mirrors and Lenses by Alvin D. Schnurr and Allen Mann. Optical Engineering, 20(3), 203412 (1 June 1981), SPIE. org.  

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7972733 

 

Cylindrical lenses: testing and radius of curvature measurement by Rufino Diaz-Uribe, Jesus Pedraza-Contreras, Octavio Cardona-Nunez, Alberto Cordero-Davila, and Alejandro Cornejo-Rodriguez. OSA publishing, Applied Optics Vol. 25, Issue 10, pp. 1707-1709 (1986). 

Website: https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-25-10-1707   

 

Absolute test for cylindrical surfaces using the conjugate differential method (15 November 2016) by Ya HuangJun MaCaojin YuanChristof PrussWeiyuan SunMincai LiuRihong ZhuZhishan Gao and Wolfgang Osten, Optical Engineering, 55(11), 114104 (2016). SPIE org. 

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.55.11.114104

Absolute interferometric test of cylindrical wavefront with a fiber optic (14 November 2014) by Ayshah Alatawi and Patrick J. Reardon, Optical Engineering, 53(11), 114104 (2014), SPIE org.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.11.114104      

 

Optics Inspection and Tests – A guide for Optics Inspectors and Designers (2017) by Michael Hausner. Pages 314-321 about Testing Cylindrical Surfaces. SPIE Press. ISBN: 9781510601796, Volume: PM269.

Website: https://spie.org/Publications/Book/2237066?SSO=1    

Measurement of Radius of Curvature of Cylindrical Surfaces by R. P. Shukla, D. V. Udupa and Murty V. Mantravadi, Journal of Optics volume 30, pages 131–142 (2001). Published by Springer Nature Switzerland AG. (30 April, 2015). 

Website: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03354733 

System and Method for cylindrical error measurement with interferometry by Dongbao Ge, Junzheng Peng, Yingjie Yu, Mingyi Chen, and Asundi Anand,  Dept. of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, P.R. China.

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore. Copyright of Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014. Published: 30 April 2015. Published by Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Print ISBN978-3-642-36358-0, Online ISBN978-3-642-36359-7.

Website: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-36359-7_155    

 

Testing of Concave Cylindrical Mirrors, Positive Cylindrical Lenses and Eliptical Cylinder Using a Low Frequency Linear Grating, by R. P. Shukla and D. V. UdupaSpectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085. Journal of Optics volume 35, No. 2 pages 65–73 (2006) (Received on May 4, 2005, published on 30 April 2015). Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Website: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03354797  

 

Application Note – Testing Cylindrical Optics (1998) by Zygo Corporation (part of the Ultra Precision Technologies Division of AMETEK, Inc.). TN-0003 (11/98) Copyright © 1998 Zygo Corporation.

Download LinkClick Here                      

Optics Inspection and Tests – A guide for Optics Inspectors and Designers by Michael Hausner, Testing Cylindrical Surfaces, pages 314-321, copyright © 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), PDF ISBN: 9781510601802, Print ISBN: 9781510601796.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.2237066 

Interferometric Methods for Testing Optical Surfaces

The Testing of Plane Surfaces by Interference Methods by C. G. Peters and H. S. Boyd, Journal of the Optical Society of America (OSA), Vol. 4, Issue 6, pp. 407-419 (1920), 

Website: https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.4.000407 

Introduction to Interferometric Optical Testing (2017) by James C. Wyant, College of Optical Sciences - University of Arizona. 

Website: https://wp.optics.arizona.edu/jcwyant/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2017/08/Introduction_to_Interferometric_Optical_Testing_SC213-2017-wide.pdf 

Testing Curved Surfaces and Lenses by James C. Wyant (1998), College of Optical Sciences - University of Arizona. 

Website: https://wp.optics.arizona.edu/jcwyant/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2016/08/6-TestingCurvedSurfaces.pdf 

Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing (28 September 2006) by Eric P. Goodwin and James C. Wyant. ISBN: 9780819465108, Volume: FG10. Published by SPIE. 

Website: https://spie.org/Publications/Book/702897 

Newton, Fizeau and Haidenger Interferometers by M. V.Mantravadi and D. Malacara (Chapter 1), Book Editor: Daniel Malacara. First published: 02 November 2006. ISBN Information Online ISBN: 9780470135976, Print ISBN: 9780471484042. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

Website: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470135976.ch1

Testing Curved Surfaces-Test Plate (2006) by Eric P. Goodwin and James C. Wyant - SPIE org. 

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.702897.p5 or

https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/ebooks/FG/Field-Guide-to-Interferometric-Optical-Testing/Testing-Curved-Surfaces-Test-Plate/Testing-Curved-Surfaces-Test-Plate/10.1117/3.702897.p57 

Optical shop testing, edited by Daniel Malacara, third edition. Print ISBN: 9780471484042, Online ISBN: 9780470135976, DOI: 10.1002/9780470135976. First published: 2 November 2006. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Website: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9780470135976  

Interference Methods for Standardizing and Testing Precision Gage Blocks (Vol. 17, Washington, May 3, 1921) by C. G. Peters and H. S. Boyd

Websitehttps://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ScientificPapers/nbsscientificpaper436vol17p677_A2b.pdf

 

Computerized interferometric surface measurements [Invited] by James C. Wyant. OSA publishing, Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 1, pp. 1-8 (2013)

Website: https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-1-1   

Interference: Newton's rings by School of Physics, UNSW Sydney, 2052 Australia 

Website: https://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/light/Newton's-rings.htm

Handbook of Optical Systems, Volume 5: Metrology of Optical Components and Systems by Bernd Dorband, Henriette Muller and Herbert Gross. Edited by Bernd Dorband. Published and copyrights by John Wiley & Sons, 2012, ISBN 3527403817, 9783527403813. 

Website: https://books.google.co.il/books/about/Handbook_of_Optical_Systems_Volume_5.html?id=fDUwx9r3HrcC&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false           

 

Optics Inspection and Tests – A guide for Optics Inspectors and Designers by Michael Hausner, Testing Cylindrical Surfaces, pages 308-315, copyright © 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), PDF ISBN: 9781510601802, Print ISBN: 9781510601796.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.2237066 

Interferometric patterns of optical surfaces, flat and spherical by Michael Hausner.

Download Link: Click Here

Aspheric and Diffractive surfaces

Aspheric

Aspheric lens from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspheric_lens

Aspheric Optics by Dr. Rüdiger Paschotta

Website: https://www.rp-photonics.com/aspheric_optics.html

 

Interferometric Testing of Aspheric Surfaces by J.C. Wyant. SPIE Interferometric Metrology, Proc. SPIE Vol. 0816, Interferometric Metrology (23 March 1987) 816, pp.19-39, 1987. Event: 31st Annual Technical Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Sciences and Engineering, 1987, San Diego, CA, United States

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.941753

 

Measuring Aspheres: Selecting the Best Technique by Amy Frantz, Edmund Optics Inc. in Singapore. Published by Photonics Media. 

Website: https://www.photonics.com/Articles/Measuring_Aspheres_Selecting_the_Best_Technique/a60947

 

All about Aspheric Lenses by Edmund. Copyright 2020, Edmund Optics Inc.

Website: https://www.edmundoptics.com/knowledge-center/application-notes/optics/all-about-aspheric-lenses/

Advanced contact and non-contact metrology for characterization of optical lenses by Yang Yu, PhD and Richard Smith, Application note A140: Optical lenses, Taylor Hobson 2013.

Website: https://www.taylor-hobson.kr/-/media/ametektaylorhobson/files/learning%20zone/application%20notes/a140_optical_lens_highres_en.pdf?la=ko-kr

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Aspheric Surfaces by Chia-Ling Li. OPTI-521 Tutorial 2013/12/2. Optics Arizona Education.

Website: https://wp.optics.arizona.edu/optomech/wp-content/uploads/sites/53/2016/10/Tutorial_ChiaLing.pdf

Vertex radius of curvature error measurement of aspheric surface based on slope asphericity in partial compensation interferometry by Qun Hao, Tengfei Li, Yao Hu, Shaopu Wang, Yan Ning, Yifeng Tan and Xinmu Zhang.  Vol. 25, No. 15, 24 Jul 2017, OPTICS EXPRESS 18107. Beijing Key Lab. for Precision Optoelectronic Measurement Instrument and Technology, School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China. Copyright © OSA Publishing.org.

Website: https://www.osapublishing.org/DirectPDFAccess/E8D71665-991D-D55B-BF284D87207B9C06_370021/oe-25-15-18107.pdf?da=1&id=370021&seq=0&mobile=no

 

Asphere Metrology Options for measuring aspheric lenses by Optimax. Copyright © Optimax Systems, Inc. 2009.

Website: https://www.optimaxsi.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Introduction-to-Asphere-Metrology.pdf

Testing of steep convex aspheric surface with a Hartmann sensor by using a CGH by Ho-Soon Yang, Jae-Bong Song, In-Won Lee and Yun-Woo Lee. 17 April 2006, Vol. 14, No. 8, OPTICS EXPRESS 3247. Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, P.O. Box 102, Yuseong, Daejon 305-600, Republic of Korea. Copyright © 2006 OSA Publishing.org.

Website: https://www.osapublishing.org/DirectPDFAccess/E96F5B5A-93D9-0363-2B9EAD2EA1B39B62_89309/oe-14-8-3247.pdf?da=1&id=89309&seq=0&mobile=no

Aspheric Lens Dimension Using 3D Profilometry prepared by Benjamin Mell, NANOVEA.

Website: http://nanovea.com/App-Notes/Aspheric%20Lens.pdf     

 

Optics Inspection and Tests – A guide for Optics Inspectors and Designers by Michael Hausner, Special Properties of Aspheric Surfaces, Diffractive Surfaces and Sapphire, pages 347-375, copyright © 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), PDF ISBN: 9781510601802, Print ISBN: 9781510601796.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.2237066

Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry (2018) by Dr. Arnold Daniels. Published by SPIE Digital Library.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.2315931.ch37

 

9.0 Special Interferometric Tests for Aspherical Surfaces by College of Optical Sciences - University of Arizona.

Website: https://wp.optics.arizona.edu/jcwyant/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2016/08/09-Aspheric-Testing.pptx.pdf

 

Use of Computer Generated Holograms for Testing Aspheric Optics by James H. Burge and James C. Wyant, Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson. AZ 85721. 

Website: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228842639_Use_of_computer_generated_holograms_for_testing_aspheric_surfaces

 

Use of Computer Generated Holograms in Optical Testing by Katherine Creath College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Optineering Tucson, Arizona and James C. Wyant College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona

Website: http://www.u.arizona.edu/~kcreath/pdf/pubs/2009_KC_JCW_HandbkOpt_v2ch14_CGH_proof.pdf

Design, Fabrication and Testing of Aspheric Surfaces by Chia-Ling Li, OPTI-521 Tutorial (12 December 2013). College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona.

Website: https://wp.optics.arizona.edu/optomech/wp-content/uploads/sites/53/2016/10/Tutorial_ChiaLing.pdf and Presentation File

 

Insights into Aspheric Lens Production and Metrology by Martin Hauer (2 September 2019), Sill Optics GmbH & Co. KG.

Website: https://www.novuslight.com/insights-into-aspheric-lens-production-and-metrology_N9573.html

 

Description of aspheric surfaces by Rainer Schuhmann. Published Online: 2019-05-14, Published in Print: 2019-06-26, Advanced Optical Technologies, Volume 8, Issue 3-4, Pages 267–278, eISSN 2192-8584, ISSN 2192-8576. 

Copyright © 2019 Rainer Schuhmann, published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1515/aot-2019-0011

 

Measuring Aspheres in a 3-D World (April 1, 2019) by Justin Tracy, LaCroix Precision Optics. Copyright © LaCroix Precision Optics.

Website: https://www.lacroixoptics.com/ or https://lacroixoptics.com/news/measuring-aspheres-selecting-2d-or-3d-metrology

 

Asphere Manufacturing Overview: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (10/9/18) Posted by Kenny Rainstaken, LaCroix Precision Optics. Copyright © LaCroix Precision Optics.

Website: https://www.lacroixoptics.com/ or https://blog.lacroixoptics.com/blog/asphere-blog-series-overview

 

Specifying an Aspheric Surface by Amber Czajkowski. A Tutorial Presenting the Guidelines for the Application and Use of Aspheric Surfaces. OPT521- Report #2, December 14, 2007, College of Optical Sciences - University of Arizona.

Website: https://studylib.net/doc/5879316/specifying-an-aspheric-surface

Interferometric measurement of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces by Michael F. Küchel, Zygo Corporation. Published: 17 June 2009, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7389, Optical Measurement Systems for Industrial Inspection VI, 738916 (17 June 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.830655. Editor: Peter H. Lehmann. Copyright © SPIE.

Website: https://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Paper/10.1117/12.830655?SSO=1

Interferometric measurement of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces (14 May 2007) by Michael F. Kuechel. Zygo Corporation. ZYGO-proc_TD04-25. Proceedings SPIE Volume 10316, Optifab 2007: Technical Digest; 103160Q (2007). Event: Optifab 2007, 2007, Rochester, New York, United States. Copyright © (2009) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Websitehttps://doi.org/10.1117/12.720726

Interferometric measurement of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces by Michael F. Küchel, Zygo Corporation, Laurel Brook Rd., Middlefield, CT 06455.

Download LinkClick Here

Diamond Turning (DT) or Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) Aspheric
Surfaces
 by Michael Hausner.

Download Link: Click Here 

Metrology for the production process of aspheric lenses by Andreas Beutler.  Advanced Optical Technologies, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 211–228, eISSN 2192-8584, ISSN 2192-8576. Published online: 27 May 2016. Copyright © 2016 THOSS Media & De Gruyter.

Websitehttps://doi.org/10.1515/aot-2016-0011 or 

https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/aot/5/3/article-p211.xml

 

 

Diffractive

 

Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test (2003) by Donald C. O'SheaThomas J. SuleskiAlan D. Kathman and Dennis W. Prather. Chapter 4: Diffractive Lens Design, Published by SPIE Digital Library.

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/3.527861.ch4

 

Diffracting light (from oemagazine, 01 May 2001) by Donald O'Shea, Thomas Suleski, Alan Kathman and Dennis Prather. This tutorial is an excerpt from the authors' forthcoming book Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test, a volume in the SPIE Tutorial Text Series.

Website: https://spie.org/news/diffracting-light?SSO=1

 

Applications of diffractive optical elements in visible and infrared optical systems (1 July 1992) by C. William Chen. Proc. SPIE Volume 10263, Lens Design: A Critical Review; 102630A. Event: OE/LASE '92, 1992, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Website: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.131973

ISO 15902:2019 Optics and photonics - Diffractive optics – Vocabulary. This ISO standard can be bought on Webstore: https://www.iso.org/store.html or

Website: https://www.iso.org/standard/77771.html

 

Diffractive–refractive behavior of Kinoform lenses by Tasso R. M. Sales and G. Michael Morris. Copyright © 1997 Optical Society of America (OSA). 1 January 1997, Vol. 36, No. 1, APPLIED OPTICS.

Website: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8308/57c8f796ff16e5620cb3f863f62f86beed91.pdf

 

Diffractive Optical Elements Lens Design OPTI 517 by Prof. Jose Sasian, College of Optical Sciences - University of Arizona. 

Website: https://wp.optics.arizona.edu/jsasian/wp-content/uploads/sites/33/2016/03/L15_OPTI517_DOE.pdf     

 

Diamond Turning (DT) or Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) Diffractive
Surfaces
by Michael Hausner.

Download Link: Click Here              

Test Plates and monochromatic
Testing optical surfaces - live
Cylindrical Surfaces
Interferometric Methods
Aspheric Surfces
Diffractve Surfaes
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